Symptoms happening suddenly and severely, usually for a shorter amount of time.
Symptoms happening suddenly and severely, usually for a shorter amount of time.
Later stages of liver scarring that can decrease liver functioning. Caused by diseases and conditions such as hepatitis or alcoholism.
People serving prison sentences have much higher rates of HIV, Hepatitis C, and tuberculosis than the general population. Unfortunately, competent HIV screening and care is inconsistently available. They also have higher rates of substance abuse and mental health concerns. Once released, health care can continue to be inconsistent or inaccessible with all the life activities involved in transitioning back into the community. The health effects of individual people involved in the criminal justice system affect their families and communities as well. Managing chronic conditions of loved ones adds to the stress and cost of supporting someone returning from prison, and the costs of health care can result in untreated conditions that can be unintentionally transmitted to others. With the massive increases in prison populations, these health problems are an example of how mass incarceration is a public health issue as well as one of justice.
Join us next Friday for a webinar about Mass Incarceration and who it is affecting. Register here: http://bit.ly/chtawmi
White text over background picture of barbed wire fences
The prevalence of HIV/AIDS is 4-5 times higher among inmates than in the community.
Hepatitis C is 9-10 times more prevalent in correctional facilities than in the community.
Tuberculosis is up to 17 times more prevalent in prisons and jails than among the general population.
Justice-involved individuals like prisoners also suffer higher rates of hypertension, asthma, arthritis, and cervical cancer compared to the general population.
Inmates also age faster, demonstrating the physical health of individuals 10-15 years older in the community.
Being healthy is expensive. There are the clearly established barriers in a lack of resources (access to nutritious food, treatment and medication costs, inconsistent insurance, etc) and lack of preventative services (dental, health, etc) which can result in more costly after-the-fact treatment. These expenses resulting in poor health and lack of treatment are crucial when discussing poverty and health, but these clearly established effects of poverty are not the only ones. There is growing research to indicate that there are effects of poverty on health that are not directly related to access to healthcare. Some examples include living in a more polluted environment and the constant stress of making ends meet contributing to health deterioration and complication.
It is also the case that some people are pushed into poverty by medical expenses, and living in poverty further negatively effects health in what becomes a feedback loop for many. Public health initiatives in the United States are gathering research on what policies and programs can help to address these complicated factors like poverty that affect so many parts of a person’s life and health. Federal initiatives like Healthy People 2020 have had social determinants of health as leading health indicators. The complexity of how each determinant affects the others means that more collaborative and innovative policies and programs are needed to support people to have every opportunity to be healthy.
Join us for a webinar all about poverty, anti-blackness and gender next Friday, 3/13/20 at 12. Register here: http://bit.ly/abpchta
Infographic titled Social Determinants: factors that Influence Your Health
Income: Your income can determine how healthy you are. How much you earn can influence both your well-being and how long you are expected to live.
Income is linked to:
Mortality: 500+ infant deaths and 2.8 thousand low-weight births could have been prevented if all states had raised their minimum wage by $1 in 2014.
Disparities: Wage gaps persist by gender, race, and ethnicity. Men’s wages per hour in 2015: Hispanics $14, Blacks $15, Whites $21, Asians $24. Women’s wages lag behind men’s across the board.
Inequalities: The richest 1% of Americans can expect to live as many as 14 years longer than the poorest 1% of Americans.
Child Death: In 2014, 44% of U.S. Youth- more than 31 million kids and teens- lived below or just above the poverty level.
Cited from the Nation’s Health,: A Publication of the American Public Health Association
A health objective of the Healthy People 2020 plan that is considered high priority, and in need of focused solutions to address.
We have presented some statistics on several health disparities faced by Black Americans this month. The people working to reduce these disparities are working towards health equity. Health equity, according to the American Public Health Association, is the opportunity for all people to achieve their best health. In order to do this, some factors that can create barriers to or facilitate best health have been identified. Though terminology sometimes varies, they are generally quality affordable healthcare, educational opportunities, housing, discrimination or Minority stressors, food security and access to healthy foods, stable income and job security, environmental quality, and neighborhood conditions. These factors are complicated, and often related to one another. Having a stable and healthy environment, accessing continuous and quality services, and being free of an unhealthy environment are thought to be the building blocks for health equity. Working to increase access and stability, and reduce the harm of an unhealthy environment is the current path away from disparities and toward equity.
For those interested in how we can use the health disparity data to move towards equity, the CDC has many resources here: http://bit.ly/36F6VoJ
Infographic titled The Path to Achieving Health Equity
What social and economic factors must be addressed on the path to achieving Health Equity?
A central bubble has the words ”HEALTH is affected by” inside. Connected to the central bubble are 8 other bubbles with attached words: discrimination/minority stressors, food security and access to healthy foods, stable income and job security, environmental quality, neighborhood conditions, quality affordable healthcare, educational opportunities, and housing.
Health equity aims to ensure that all people have full and equal access to opportunities that enable them to lead healthy lives.
This infographic was created by the Health Equity Institute for Research, Practice and Poli
Factors of an individual’s social and environmental interactions that have an impact on health risks and outcomes.
The CDC keeps track of many different health data sets. One of these is called potentially preventable deaths. This is something of a confusing public health term. The number of these potentially preventable deaths can be thought of as a public health goal. If all people received appropriate and timely treatment or effective public health intervention, the potentially preventable deaths would equal zero. To complicate this term even more, there are certain risk factors that are considered modifiable or controllable as a way to potentially prevent a death from things like heart disease and stroke by lowering the risk of a cardiac event or a stroke. Those risk factors are: high blood pressure, high cholesterol, cigarette smoking, diabetes, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity. This is one of the current public health prevention strategies for the outcome disparities like Black men being over-represented in potentially preventable death from heart disease and stroke. As we discussed last week, disparities are complex problems with many factors, and public health workers know that effective prevention efforts must be combined with increased access to quality treatment to address them.
Interested in information about health disparities in Philadelphia? Join us next Friday for a webinar about lower limb amputations presented by Dr. Marcelin. Register here: http://bit.ly/rgdple
Title: Black men are at highest risk of dying early from heart disease and stroke
Two bar charts are shown, one for men and one for women. The X-axis is labeled with different racialized categories, and the Y-axis is labeled preventable deaths per 100,000 people.
For the “men” bar chart, the numbers (or preventable deaths) are as follows:
American Indian/Alaska Native: 90
Asian Pacific Islander: 47
For the “Women” bar chart, the numbers are:
American Indian/Alaska Native: 46
Asian Pacific Islander: 22
Source: the national vital statistics system, US Census Bureau, 2010
Metabolic syndrome is a group of risk factors which, when present, greatly increase an individual’s risk of developing coronary heart disease or type-2 diabetes. They are: insulin resistance (or high blood glucose levels), hypertension, abnormal blood lipids, and obesity.
As with pre-cancer, the presence of these risk factors DO NOT mean you will develop a disease. Knowing if you have this syndrome is helpful to monitor your health more closely to prevent and treat possible health complication.
The period of time immediately before and after birth. Can describe from 5 months before birth to 4 weeks after.
Health Disparity was our Word Wednesday this week. When a group of people is more impacted by illness than another, it is called a health disparity. This can look differently depending on the specific illness. The number of people affected, the quality of life impact, and the access to treatment are all factors to consider when describing how one group is more affected than other by the same disease. National Black HIV/AIDS Awareness Day is February 7th, and we want to recognize that a health disparity exists for Black Americans in regards to HIV. In 2016 and 2017, Black Americans were 13 % of the total population. However, they were 42% of people living with HIV, and 44% of new HIV diagnoses. In particular, Black men who have sex with other men account for the highest rate of new HIV cases in 2017. However, Black women having sex with men are the highest rate of transmission through heterosexual contact. Targeted programs to reach groups with the largest health disparities are working to reduce and eliminate this disparity along with working to treat and eliminate HIV/AIDS across the population.
If you are someone looking to connect with other Black advocates and learn about the people creating programs, the Black AIDS Institute is honoring some important people this month (https://blackaids.org/).
A heavier burden of illness experienced by one group, when compared to another
Most often, racial and ethnic group health disparities are reported. However, there are also health disparities between income groups, gender groups, sexuality groups, and other populations of people.
To learn about health disparities here in Philadelphia, join us for our webinar about lower limb amputations on February 28th. Register here: http://bit.ly/rgdple
Annette B. Gadegbeku, MD is Director of Adult Medicine at John Bell Health Center and Jonathan Lax Treatment Center of Philadelphia FIGHT Community Health Centers. Dr. Gadegbeku is a Family Medicine Physician who specializes in primary care for all ages (from pediatrics to geriatrics)!
Dr. Cruz is a board-certified pediatrician who serves as the Medical Director for our Pediatrics and Adolescent Health Center. He has presented and/or published in the fields of community violence and domestic violence prevention, quality improvement, behavioral health, curriculum development, and mentorship.